domingo, 24 de enero de 2016


The removal of the brain was performed via the nose; the incision for the removal of the intestines was made on the left side of the abdomen. This male child shows a sutura metopica that is the cranial suture dividing the forehead, which does not close even in adulthood.
This characteristic, as well as other distinguishing marks, are quite common. Both upper arm bones were broken in the middle after death.
Katalog "Mumien aus dem Alten Ägypten", Wien (1998) 33, 40.

Mummified Fetus Reveals Ancient Surgery While in Mother's Womb

Mummified Fetus Reveals Ancient Surgery While in Mother's Womb

Central Italy was devastated by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake in April 2009 that killed over 300 people.* In the town of Casentino, the St. John the Evangelist church sustained significant damage to the floor, leading archeologists to discover human remains dating back to the 19th century. Among them, scientists discovered a mummified fetus who appears to have undergone an embryotomy. It's a surgery that dismembers the fetus while it is in the womb, when traditional delivery methods are impossible to perform. The research was led by Ruggero D'Anastasio of University Museum at University of Chieti, and the paper was published in the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology.
The fetus's remains were found wrapped up in a hooded blanket, so they had to be examined via radiograph. Immediately, they saw that the bones were not located exactly where they were supposed to be under natural circumstances. Instead, it looked like the body had been taken apart and placed roughly back together, like a human puzzle. The team was able to determine that the fetus was roughly 29 weeks into development and was dated back to about 1849.
Due to the extent of the dismemberment, the researchers believe that this was an embryotomy and not a normal post-mortem autopsy. The skull had been severed from the spinal column and had been cut in several places. Additionally, limbs and bones within the axial skeleton had been detached or dissected. While the gender is typically revealed through the morphology of the jaw and pelvic bones, the damage to those areas was too severe for D'Anastasio's team to make that determination.
D'Anastasio told LiveScience that it is rare to see archeological evidence of an embryotomy in this region. This procedure started in Alexandria in the 1st century, as a means for physicians to extract miscarried fetuses. Centuries later, it was adopted as a means of abortion. D'Anastasio also notes that because the bones were reassembled and carefully wrapped together, it was a sign of respect and compassion for the lost life.
Along with the fetus, the researchers found items such as rosaries, clothing, jewelry, and shrouds for wrapping deceased bodies. Radiocarbon dating concluded all of these objects came from the same time period during the 1800s.
*In the aftermath of the earthquake, one Italian governmental official and six scientists were convicted of manslaughter and causing criminal injury in 2012. Though the region is routinely subjected to minor tremors, the prosecutors accused the seven of downplaying the threat. Though the defense claimed that not every event can be predicted and nothing could have been done to prevent it, they were each sentenced to six years in prison. The decision brought delight to the families of the victim, but caused outcry among scientists around the world who believe it set a dangerous and unfair precedent.

 October 3, 2014 | by Lisa Winter

Child mummy

Child mummy. Museum of Greco-Roman Antiques. Alexandria. Egypt
age fotostock

child mummy Tanwa

An introduction to our child mummy Tanwa

In my recent post about the Philadelphia Science Festival, I put in a little teaser photograph of one of our child mummies currently in the lab:
child mummy overallNow, all of our mummies are special, but this child mummy has several qualities that make her particularly endearing. One of the things that we really love is that her name is written on her wrappings, near her feet.
Child mummy detailHer name is actually written in both Greek and Demotic – Demotic is the language/script that developed in later periods in Egypt (and is one of the languages inscribed on the Rosetta Stone, along with Greek and hieroglyphic Egyptian). In Greek, this inscription reads: “Tanous (daughter of) Hermodorus”. In Demotic her name reads as “Tanwa”.
So, based on this inscription, we know that she dates to the Ptolemaic Period, and that she is a girl. According to our Egyptologists, what is interesting about the names is that they give a good indication of the multi-cultural nature of this time period. Not only in the fact that 2 languages are represented, but that the girl’s name incorporates the name of an Egyptian goddess, Iwnyt, while her father’s name includes the name of a Greek god, Hermes.
Tanwa has been CT-scanned, which has confirmed the fact that she is a girl, and was likely right around the age of 5 when she died.
Here is a still from the CT scan showing a detail of Tanus' skull. Based on her teeth it has been estimated that she was right around 5 years old when she died.
Here is a still from the CT scan showing a detail of Tanwa’s skull. Based on her teeth it has been estimated that she was about 5 years old when she died. That pin you can see near the top of her skull is modern and not actually in her skull-it was used to secure the outermost layers of linen in that area.
One of my favorite things that CT scanning has shown is that she is wearing 2 bracelets on her left wrist. We are guessing that these might be gold.
Two bangle bracelets on the left wrist show up clearly on the CT scan.
Two bangle bracelets on the left wrist show up clearly on the CT scan.
She also has a small metal ball included in her wrappings just over her right tibia. Exactly what this is and why it was placed there is a bit of a mystery.
A detail shot of the metal ball near her right tibia.
A detail shot of the metal ball near her right tibia.
There is a lot more we can learn from these CT scans, which I will describe in a future post.
Fortunately, Tanwa is in fairly good condition; one of the main issues that we need to address here in the conservation lab is that many of the narrow linen bands wrapped around her body are fragile, torn and partially detaching. I am currently more than halfway through the conservation treatment, and I will provide a thorough report on what we are doing to stabilize her wrappings next. Stay tuned!

The Wan Muhuggiag Mummy, on display at the Assaraya.

The Tashwinat Mummy is a small mummy of a child, discovered in a small cave in Wan Muhuggiag, in the Acacus massif (Tadrart Acacus), Fezzan, Libya, by Professor Fabrizio Mori in 1958. The mummy is currently on display at the Assaraya Alhamra Museum (gallery 4) in Tripoli. The name Muhuggiag appears in various forms, including Wan Mughjaj, Uan Mugjaj (probably a typing error of: Muhjaj), Wan Mahugag, and Uan Muhuggiag. The local pronunciation of the name gives: Muhjaij: /mouhjeej/.

The Mummy:

The cave showed signs of being occupied at different periods, and its walls were painted with images of people, animals, cattle, and scratched with graffiti. This was an opportunity probably the kind professor Mori was searching for. As the cave's floor was sandy and soft to dig, the professor could not resist the rare opportunity to be the first to excavate the cave. Not long and not far from the surface he found what appeared to be a strange bundle of some sort. Upon careful investigation it turned out to be of a mummy of a child carefully wrapped in a goatskin, with its entrails replaced by wild herbs, probably to aid preservation.
The child is thought to have been 3 years old at the time of death. Using radiocarbon 14 method, the mummy was thought to be between 5,400 and 5,600 years old, which makes it much older than any of the mummies found in (neighbouring) ancient Egypt. It was believed that the makers of the mummy were cattle herders, and occupied much of North Africa, at a time when the Sahara was a savannah.

This is the info displayed beneath the mummy in the museum (see the above photo), stating the age of the child, the location of the discovery (Wadi Tashwinat), the age of the mummy, and that it was wrapped in plants. Later research showed that the mummy was placed in a foetal position, embalmed, covered with antelope skin, and wrapped with leaves. This prehistoric Libyan technique did indeed protect the body for 5,600 years.

Wan Muhuggiag Periods:

The archaeological finds at the site indicate that it was occupied by humans at different times. The most recent layer contained stone tools, such as querns, and a horned cattle skull, probably as an emblem of the sun; while the oldest layer contained stone slabs, typically used during that period for proper burial (see Germa Museum for details on this).
  • 5400 years ago
  • 7850 years ago
  • 7600 years ago


Ancient mummy in basement in Hermitage Museum. Petersburg, Russia

Head of an ancient mummy

Head of an ancient mummy in Hermitage Museum. Saint Petersburg, Russia

... DSCF3711 St.Petersburg-Hermitage Museum-Egyptian Mummies | by Pinar Tan

Mummy of a tribe leader

Mummy of a tribe leader in basement in Hermitage Museum. Petersburg, Russia

Donation mummy of crocodile

Donation mummy of crocodile
Period: Late Period–Roman Period
Date: ca.400 B.C.–100 A.D.
Geography: From Egypt, Middle Egypt, Manfalut
Medium: Linen, animal remains
Dimensions: H. 2.3 cm (7/8 in.); W. 3.5 cm (1 3/8 in.); L. 32.4 cm (12 3/4 in.)
Credit Line: Gift of James Douglas, 1890
Accession Number: 90.6.115
Sacred animals had always figured in ancient Egyptian religion, but beginning about the 7th century the phenomenon of sacred animal cults burgeoned remarkably. In some temples a single sacred animal acted as the living incarnation of a god, in others living species were kept within the temple precincts, and there were also temples and sanctuaries attached to the burial places of sacred animals.
Most of the animal mummies in museums today are from among the hundreds of thousands or more made for sale to those wishing to make donations to a relevant divine animal or god in order to bring themselves to the god’s attention, perhaps for a specific purpose like a dream interpretation or a wish for fertility, perhaps for a better eternal life.
Research on animal mummies has shown that the majority of mummies found at the large animal cemetery sites are pre-adults who were purposely killed for use as donations. Some of the mummies are actually ‘substitute’ mummies containing only a few bones or feathers or possibly just sticks or sand.
Met Museum

Tomb LXVI, Bagawat Necropolis, Kharga Oasis

Tomb LXVI, Bagawat Necropolis, Kharga Oasis
During the 1930–31 excavation season, Charles K. Wilkinson and Walter Hauser discovered an untouched tomb with multiple burials. The subterranean burial chamber contained three reused wooden coffins. Unpainted and embellished with moldings, the inner coffin housed the body of a woman wrapped in linen sheets with a crisscross binding. She wore silver earrings and five strings of beads. A folded tunic with blue clavi (stripes) covered... her body. Many of the grave goods found in her coffin are on view. Resting on the lid of the coffin were an elderly man and an infant.
The well-wrapped body of a young woman was placed in the second coffin, which was painted with funerary and religious scenes drawn from pharaonic art. A folded tunic with blue stripes rested on her body. The woman wore no jewelry, but her hair was elaborately braided. Beside her left shoulder was the body of her newborn, wrapped with nine necklaces. A basket placed at the woman's head contained an assortment of items, including an iron lock and a coin of Nero mounted as a pendant. A man lay on the lid of the coffin. The outermost coffin, which contained the body of a man, combined a bier painted with pharaonic imagery and a coffin lid. Additionally, a third woman was buried in the floor beneath the coffins.
The reuse of pharaonic-style coffins suggests that the deceased were not Christian. However, the placement of the bodies with the heads pointed westward, as well as the inclusion of infants, is typical of Christian burials. Furthermore, the grave goods do not include typical pharaonic items such as ba (human-headed) birds, and the reuse of pagan coffins by Christians is also attested at Saqqara, in Lower Egypt. If these burials are indeed Christian, they provide further evidence of the use of mummification by some Christians, a practice also attested at a handful of other burials in Egypt and in the archive of mortuary workers from Kysis (modern Dush) in Kharga Oasis.…/list…/2012/kharga-oasis/tomb-lxvi

Coffins and Mummy of the Lady Nephthys

Coffins and Mummy of the Lady Nephthys

Period: Middle Kingdom
Dynasty: Dynasty 12
Date: ca. 1981–1802 B.C.
Geography: From Egypt, Middle Egypt, Meir (Mir), Khashaba excavations
Medium: Wood, human remains, linen
Dimensions: Outer Coffin: L. 202.8 cm (20 15/16 × 79 13/16 in.) Inner Coffin: L. 179.5 cm (70 11/16 in.) Mummy: L. 162.5 cm (64 in.)
Credit Line: Rogers Fund, 1911
Accession Number: 11.150.15a–c-related
 This rectangular outer coffin and inner anthropoid coffin containing the mummy were found in the intact burial chamber of a pit in the tomb of Senbi II at Meir. The texts on the outer coffin show that it was originally made for Ukkhotep, as his name and title were altered for the daughter of a "member of the elite" Nephthys. The decoration of the outer coffin is composed of a palace facade eye panel and bands of inscriptions with funerary formulae stating that the deceased was honored by various gods. The inner anthropoid coffin, still containing the wrapped mummy, has a gilded face and a faience broad collar.
Met Museu

cat mummy

cat mummy
Petrie Museum

sábado, 23 de enero de 2016


The mummy and it's coffin formed part of a group presented to the Prince of Wales during his visit to Egypt in 1858-59. When these were distributed several years later it became the property of the Huntingdon Literary and Philosophical Society, and later the Huntingdon Museum. In 1928 it was transferred to the City of Leicester Museums on permanent loan. In 1955 it came to Liverpool.
P.H.K. Gray and Dorothy Slow; "Egyptian Mummies in the City of Liverpool Museums", 1968.

viernes, 22 de enero de 2016

Mummy of Ankh Hor

These xrays are of the mummy Ankh Hor. Notice the modern pins, that show up as thin white lines. The square shaped items are clips holding the back of the cartonnage together. It is believed that an attempt may have been made to open the case at sometime in the more recent past (perhaps the 19th or early 20th century).
On the close-up of the head, the eyebrow and eye pieces are visible. This xray also shows that Ankh Hor had good teeth; often teeth were heavily worn down by the gritty bread that the Egyptians ate.
There is evidence that Ankh Hor may have broken his collarbone at some time in his life; although this did heal. There is further evidence for a possible fracture to the pelvis area. As there is no sign of this healing, it has been speculated that it may have been the cause of his death.
On the upper body some small amulets are discernible, and the large dense area on the left side of the chest may be a wrapped shabti of Osiris in place of the heart, which was usually the only organ left in the body.
The xrays were kindly produced by the radiography staff of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, outside of regular hospital hours.

martes, 19 de enero de 2016

mummifcated head

Sprang Headcovering, Mummified Head, Hair Tools, Cap, Petri Museums, Archaeology Textiles, 000, Head Petri,

baboon hand

An Egyptian mummified hand and forearm, New Kingdom, c. 1570-1070 BC, the fingers long and slender, still neatly individually wrapped, the nails exposed. L: 7" (17.8 cm). Ex-Reginald Berti Haselden (1881-1952) collection, Pasadena, CA. Mr. Haselden formed and curated the Manuscript Department at Huntington Library, Pasadena, CA

baboon hand

human hand

Ancient Egyptian mummified female human hand. The linen bandages have been over-modelled with resin.
© Australian Museum

domingo, 17 de enero de 2016


The mummified remains of a large serpent, the bandages are loose and discoloured. The mummy lies in a coiled position.
Several important deities were represented by the serpent, notably the cobra goddess of the Delta, Wadjet, on the Uraeus, Meretseger, of the Theban Necropolis and Apophis.

sábado, 16 de enero de 2016

TT277, the tomb of Ameneminet .

seated on the throne "Amon-Horakhty, the great god, master of the sky, master of the Maat"; the right hand grasps a sign of life, whilst the left brandishes a was-scepter. On the head of the falcon is a solar disk (red originally). Behind the god, is found the goddess "Isis, mistress of the Ma'at"; she could have been confused with Hathor since she carries on her head a pair of horns of cows surrounding a solar disk which was originally red. Again, a monopodale table supports the usual offerings. The character in worship is again Ameneminet, followed by his wife and by a teenager. The accompanying text identifies them: "For the Ka of the Osiris, the lector priest of Ptah, Ameneminet, (for) the lady Tiy. His son, the wab-priest of Ptah, Kenamon, just for voice".

 TT277, the tomb of Ameneminet .


The Mastaba of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at Saqqara

The Mastaba of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at Saqqara

Vue du mastaba d'Akhethétep à Saqqarah - Ve dynastie égyptienne

Vue du mastaba d'Akhethétep à Saqqarah - Ve dynastie égyptienne

Mastabat al-Fir’aun

Mastabat al-Fir’aun

The mistery of unkhnonw man E

The mistery of unkhnonw man E
Bob Brier

miércoles, 13 de enero de 2016


The mummy is completely enveloped in cloth on which a pattern of pearls has been sewn in the form of lozanges. Over the head a relatively flat mask has been placed on which a face, a wig and a part of a necklace have been painted. The chest is covered by a large pectoral with clasps in the form of a falcon's head. The lower part of the body is adorned by the image of a winged <A HREF="God">goddess</A> which represents Nephthys. The motif of the fourth scene is composed of a d...jed-pillar which is adored by Isis and Nephthys and the four Sons of Horus. The feet are concealed in a sheath on which the god Anubis, perched on his shrine, has been drawn. The bottom presents two simple soles.
M.-P. Vanlathem, Oudegyptische lijkkisten en mummies - Cercueils et momies de l'Égypte ancienne, Bruxelles 1983, 24-25
F. Lefebvre et B. Van Rinsveld, L'Égypte. Des Pharaons aux Coptes, Bruxelles 1990, 243, 250
M. Raven, Mummies onder het mes, Amsterdam 1993, 112
Inventory number: E.3974

domingo, 10 de enero de 2016

mummy : child


Deshasheh, skull found in the rock cut tomb of Inti
Inti was the owner of a decorated rock cut tomb. The tomb is well-known for a wall scene showing the siege of a fortified settlement.