domingo, 18 de diciembre de 2011

La momia de Ti Ameny Net

UR exhibit will feature Egyptian mummy

Ancient Egyptian mummies come and go in Richmond, but Ti Ameny Net and Tjeby the Younger are here to stay.

Ti Ameny Net and her elaborately painted coffin, housed in the University of Richmond's Ancient World Gallery, are surely UR's best-kept archaeological secret.

That will change Feb. 24 when "Ti Ameny Net: An Ancient Mummy, An Egyptian Woman and Modern Science" opens at UR's Lora Robins Gallery of Design From Nature. This small show will remain on view through June 29.

Tjeby the Younger is no stranger to Virginia Museum of Fine Arts visitors with long memories. Until his coffin was closed in 1984, he fired the imaginations of schoolchildren for two decades as they peered down a shaft to see his dimly lighted form in his partly open coffin.

Now he's back on view in his coffin in VMFA's recently reopened Egyptian galleries, but without the atmospherics that made his previous installation such a spook show.

The partially unwrapped Ti Ameny Net — her head and part of her feet are exposed — is in considerably better condition than Tjeby the Younger.

Ti Ameny Net lived in Egypt between 950 and 730 B.C. She was donated to UR for its new museum in 1875 by Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry, a UR professor who bought the mummy and her coffin in Egypt, apparently after they had passed through the hands of the Prince of Wales.

A rigorous physical conducted in 1976 at the Naval Ballistics Laboratory in Indian Head, Md., indicated that Ti Ameny Net stood a little over 5 feet tall and died childless between the ages of 30 and 40. A cause of death was not determined.

The show opening in February will build upon that research through DNA and bone samples extracted from the mummy as well as CAT scans and X-rays taken last year at VCU Medical Center.

The new examination "clarified some of the anomalies in the earlier scans," says Elizabeth Baughan, who directs the Ancient World Gallery as a UR associate professor of classics and archaeology.

"We discovered that there were no amulets in the wrappings. The new research confirmed that she died in her early 30s. We still don't know what she died of, but she had scoliosis and degenerative changes on her vertebrae.

"A handful of Egyptians objects from our gallery and the Lora Robins Gallery will be included, but this exhibition is as much about presenting the new research as about objects."

Coffin of Ti Ameny Net, Egyptian 25th Dynasty, 7th century B.C.E., on view at the Lora Robins Gallery of Design from Nature, University of Richmond Museums.

History of Ti Ameny Net

Ti Ameny Net was buried in a tomb in the sands of Egypt some time during the Egyptian pharaonic twenty-second dynasty between the years 950 and 730 BCE She is placed in her temporal setting through the composition of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the first Olympic games, and the founding of the city of Rome.

Ti Ameny Net died childless and young. To this day, her cause of death remains unknown. We do know that her mother's name was Ruru, or Lulu and her father's name was Nesy Amun. Ti Ameny Net's parents may very well have outlived their daughter. It is evident from her elaborate and extravagant burial that Ti Ameny Net's family must have held great wealth and station in ancient Egypt. Her burial was of the most auspicious nature so as to assure the best in her after-life.

Ti Ameny Net was allowed to rest in her proper tomb in the sands of Egypt for nearly three thousand years. The jaded taste of one of Victorian England's most notorious playboys, the exaggerated interest in death and death-related objects peculiar to the Victorian period, and archaeology's dependence upon cemetary looting for many of its most prized possesions are all in some way responsible for Ti Ameny Net's questionable exhumation. Today, Ti Ameny Net rests peacefully in the Ancient World Gallery in North Court on the campus of the University of Richmond. In addition to the sarcophagus, the department also has x-ray and CT images, and a timeline of Ti Ameny Net's travels

Ti Ameny Net Mummy
A little know fact about the University of Richmond’s Department of Classical Studies is that the department is home to not only faculty, staff and students but to one three-millennia-old mummy, Ti Ameny Net.

Displayed in the department's Ancient World Gallery in North Court, Ti Ameny Net (also spelled by translators as Djai Ameni Niwet), along with her sarcophagus, has been a resident of Richmond and a piece of campus folklore since 1876 when Dr. Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry, a professor at Richmond College, brought the mummy back from an excursion to Egypt.

Her history is long and eventful. Buried in Egypt between 950 and 730 BCE and exhumed in the second half of the 19th century, the mummy traveled to Richmond via England and Philadelphia. Over the years, Egyptologists have conducted analyses of her bone structure and sarcophagus, including its intricate hieroglyphics. A video presentation on Ti Ameny Net is available.

Sobre el sarcófago de Ti Ameny Net

Ti Ameney Net Sarcophagus

The sarcophagus was examined by the famous Egyptologist, James Henry Breasted, in the 1890's. He examined the mummy and case at the request of Charles H. Ryland and deciphered most of the hieroglyphs. The following is his description and analysis of the sarcophagus

A mummiform coffin showing an elaborate toilet from the waist up. It consists of a headdress of vulture wings descending behind the ears and surmounting a huge wig which falls in masses upon either breast.

Around the neck is a broad necklace of many bands terminating below in a pair of outstretched hawk's wings, attached to the outspread arms of a crouching female genius. From the waist down the surface is blocked out in rectangular fields, bearing mortuary prayers and scenes.

Over the abdomen is the bier bearing the mummy. The foot of both is visible. Above this hovers a human headed bird, which represents the soul of the deceased, and beneath the bier are four jars, one broken away, containing the viscera of the deceased.

Prayers to four genii for the protection
of these jars are written on either side of the bier, and below it, in six long columns, are prayers for the maintenance of the food, drink, and clothing in the hereafter. Similar mortuary texts occupy the spaces on either side of these long columns, and are continued also on the back of the case, each side the middle.

As an example of these texts, the one on the back of the left shoulder reads "an offering which the King gives for Osiris who presides over the West, lord of Abydos, Keb, prince of the Gods, Tum, Lord of Heliopolis, Anubis, master of enbalming, Lord of Ta Zoser, Osiris, Lord of the dead. May he grant mortuary offerings, one thousand fine linen, one thousand loaves, one thousand jars of beer, one thousand oxen, one thousand geese, one thousand incense, one thousand fine linen, one thousand obligations, one thousand food offerings, one thousand wine, one thousand milk, one thousand of everything good and pure, one thousand eternities for the double of Osiris, the lady Ti Ameny Net, deceased." Such prayers are magically potent to procure for the dead all of the things enumerated.

On the feet are the sacred eyes, and down the middle of the back the great symbol of Osiris, the Uraeus. Within at the top on both parts is another prayer, and beneath these the standing fiqure of Nut, goddess of heaven. The coffin is of sycamore wood covered with cloth stuccoed over, and the painting is in watercolor.

The lady was the daughter of a man named Nesy Amun and a woman named Ruru, or Lulu. From the style of the coffin the lady was evidently a person of wealth, but seems to have held no official station or rank.
Examen de la momia de Ti Ameny Net

Ti Ameney Net Images
The mummy of Ti Ameny Net was x-rayed by Professor Stuart Wheeler in 1976 at the Naval Ballistics Laboratory in Indian Head, Maryland. This was made possible by University of Richmond alumnus, Mr. Edward Baroody. CT Images were provided by Dr. James Snyder at the Medical College of Virginia.

J. Lawrence Angel, curator of physical anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution, examined these x-rays at the request of Professor Wheeler and interpreted them as follows:

•Sex Criteria are all clearly female.
•Age Criteria are transitional from young to middle aged, between 30 and 40.
•Race criteria are white: she "looks" Egyptian.
•Stature is between 152 and 155 centimeters -- just under 60 1/2 inches -- a bit shorter than the average for eastern Mediterranean peoples, including Egyptians.
•There are no scars of child birth, and no visible scars of growth arrest at the ends of the long bones.
•There is no indication of pathology.
•There is a slight trace of arthritis.
The mummy itself was preserved by soaking in resins and gums and wrapped in fine white linen. Cultural objects wrapped in the linen wrapping include:

•beside the left thorax at circa T9 level: a snaky handle with two bars.
•on the thorax at T10 level - a flower like daub, possibly a cotton ball.
•at the T10 and L3 levels - two bars circa 2 to 3 centimeters long.
•below and medial to the left knee - a flower like daub.
•at the lateral side of the right ankle, a scroll 47 millimeters long, with a central peg or roller 57 millimeters long, slightly tapering.
At the present time the university has no plans to unwrap the mummy and the identification of these cultural objects remains unknown. It was not unusual to wrap such totemistic objects in the linen folds to protect the body within.

Lower body

CT Scans
Skull (front view)
Skull (side view)
Bust (blue)
Bust (red)
Body (wrapped)
Body (bones)
Body (additional bones)

Cabeza de Ti Ameny Net

parte inferior del cuerpo

In 1999, Eygptologist David Howell examined and translated the hieroglyphs on the sarcophagus. Learn more about his recent translations and what they tell us about Ti Ameny Net by visiting our Hieroglyphs site, or read more about Ti Ameney Net's timeline.


Imagenes de la momia de Ti Ameny Net, se pueden ver todas en el enlace a la página web del anterior post.
CT scan

imagen de la momia con vendas

imagen del cráneo

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